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  Gall Bladder Disease
   
  FEQ-What is Gall Bladder
   
  The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped sac located underneath your liver. Your gallbladder’s main function is to store the bile produced by your liver and pass it along to the small intestine. Bile helps you digest fats in your small intestine.
   
 
   
  What Are the Types of Gallbladder Disease?
   
  Gallstones
  Gallstones develop when substances in the bile (such as cholesterol, bile salts, and calcium) form hard particles that block the passageway to the gallbladder.

Gallstones also tend to form when the gallbladder doesn’t empty completely or often enough. They can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a marble ball.

Numerous factors contribute to your risk of developing gallstones. These include:
 
  • being overweight or obese
  • eating a high-fat or high-cholesterol diet
  • having diabetes
  • being age 60 or older
  • taking medications that contain estrogen
  • having a family history of gallstones
  • being female
  Cholecystitis
  Cholecystitis is the most common type of gallbladder disease.



Acute Cholecystitis

Acute cholecystitis is generally caused by gallstones, but it may also be the result of tumors or various other illnesses.
  Presentation
  It may present with pain in the upper right side or upper middle part of the abdomen. The pain tends to occur right after a meal and ranges from sharp colicky pain to dull aches that can radiate to your right shoulder. Acute cholecystitis can also cause:
 
  • fever
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • jaundice
  • different colored stools-if the draining duct is blocked
  Chronic Cholecystitis
  After several attacks of acute cholecystitis, the gallbladder will either shrink and lose its ability to store and release bile or would become thick walled with adhesions to surrounding structures.

Frequent attacks of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting may occur.
  Choledocholithiasis
  Gallstones may become lodged in the neck of the gallbladder or in the bile ducts.
 
  When the gallbladder is plugged in this way, bile can’t exit. This may lead to the gallbladder becoming inflamed or distended. The plugged bile ducts will further prevent bile from traveling from the liver to the intestines.

Choledocholithiasis can cause:
 
  • extreme pain in the upper abdomen
  • fever
  • chills
  • nausea
  • vomiting
   
  Acalculous Gallbladder Disease
  Acalculous gallbladder disease, or biliary dyskinesia, occurs without the presence of gallstones.

It can be chronic or  acute and may result from the gallbladder muscles or valve not working properly. The symptoms can include abdominal pain on the right side of body that radiates to (R) shoulder. Eating foods high in fat often triggers this. Related symptoms may include:
 
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • bloating
  • loose stools
   
  Sclerosing Cholangitis
  Inflammation, scarring, and damage to the bile ducts is referred to as sclerosing cholangitis. It’s unknown what causes the disease. People with sclerosing cholangitis may have an enlarged liver or spleen along with a decrease in appetite and weight loss.
   
  Gallbladder Cancer
  Cancer of the gallbladder is a relatively rare but commonly seen in people who hail from Gangetic basin disease.

If it’s not treated, however, it can spread from the inner walls of the gallbladder to the outer layers and then to the other organs and ducts. The symptoms of gallbladder cancer may be similar to those of acute cholecystitis.
   
  Gallbladder Polyps
  Gallbladder polyps are lesions or growths that occur on the gallbladder. They’re usually benign and have no symptoms.
   
  Gangrene of the Gallbladder
  Gangrene develops when the gallbladder stops functioning due to inadequate blood flow. This may occur due to:
 
  • infections
  • injury
  • diabetes
  • surgery
  • diseases related to blood circulation
  The symptoms of gallbladder gangrene can include:
 
  • pain in the gallbladder region
  • fever
  • nausea or vomiting
  • gas
  • disorientation
  • low blood pressure
  Abscess of the Gallbladder
  Abscess of the gallbladder results when neck of GB gets blocked which when gets infected and may get filled up with pus.

It may present with upper right-sided pain in the abdomen.
   
  How Is Gallbladder Disease Diagnosed?
  Detailed Patient History- By Clinician

A list of symptoms being experienced and any personal or family history of gallbladder disease are important. A general health assessment may also be performed to determine if there are any signs of a long-term gallbladder disease.
   
  Physical Exam
  Your doctor may perform a special maneuver during the abdominal exam to look for what is referred to as “Murphy’s sign.” During this maneuver, your doctor will put their hand on your abdomen to feel the gallbladder, and then ask you take a breath while palpating near the gallbladder. If you feel severe pain, it suggests you may have acuteĀ  gallbladder disease.
   
  Ultrasonography
  Ultrasonography uses sound waves to produce images of your organs.

Ultrasonography is the main method of diagnosis for gallbladder disease and usually reveals the presence of gallstones, thickened walls, or any other problems in your gallbladder.
   
  Other Investigations
  Blood tests are done to check for increased white blood cells and liver function.
   
  How Is Gallbladder Disease Treated?
  Surgery
  surgery to remove the gallbladder is best option.

Laparoscopic Cholicystectomy,

laproscopically, which involves making three holes and inserting a camera.

Laparoscopic surgery allows for easier and faster recovery with minimal scarring. This is considered as the Gold standard of Calculous cholycstitis
   
  Potential Long-Term Complications of Gallbladder Disease
  The gallbladder may form an abnormal passageway, or fistula, to help process the liver’s bile. This is the most severe problem associated with gallbladder disease. Complications can also include:
 
  • obstruction of the intestine
  • inflammation
  • perforation (a hole in the gallbladder)
  • bacterial contamination
  • malignant transformation
   
  Can Gallbladder Disease Be Prevented?
  Your diet may play a role in developing gallstones. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), you should eat foods high in fiber and healthy fats to help prevent gallstones. Refined grains (found in sugary cereals and white rice, bread, and pasta) and sugar are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder disease. Whole grains like brown rice and whole wheat bread and fats from fish and olive oil are all recommended. 
   
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